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Gender-Based Violence

Updated: Nov 6, 2023

Gender-based violence (GBV) is a pervasive and deeply entrenched social issue that encompasses various forms of harm inflicted upon individuals based on their gender identity or perceived adherence to traditional gender roles. Primarily affecting women and girls, though not exclusively, GBV manifests in physical, sexual, psychological, and economic forms of violence. Physical violence may involve acts of aggression, while sexual violence encompasses rape, harassment, and coercion. Psychological or emotional abuse often includes verbal mistreatment, intimidation, or control tactics. Economic abuse restricts financial resources and opportunities, perpetuating dependency. Rooted in power imbalances, GBV is fueled by societal norms and stereotypes. It not only violates fundamental human rights but also has profound and enduring impacts on the physical and mental well-being of survivors. Addressing GBV requires a multi-faceted approach involving legal measures, educational initiatives, awareness campaigns, and robust support services to empower survivors and challenge the deeply ingrained structures that perpetuate gender inequality and violence.


Sexual violence is a significant and interconnected component of gender-based violence (GBV), illustrating the complex relationship between the two. Gender-based violence encompasses various forms of harm inflicted upon individuals due to their gender, and sexual violence is one of its prevalent manifestations. In the context of GBV, sexual violence refers to any non-consensual sexual act or behavior that is perpetrated against an individual based on their gender. It includes acts such as rape, sexual assault, harassment, and coercion. Importantly, sexual violence is often rooted in power imbalances and gender inequality. Perpetrators may use sexual violence as a means to assert control, dominance, or to enforce traditional gender roles. Sexual violence is often used as a tool to reinforce power dynamics and maintain gender-based inequalities. Women and girls, in particular, are disproportionately affected by sexual violence, but men can also be victims. The intersectionality of sexual violence with other forms of discrimination, such as race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status, further compounds the complexities of the issue.


Technology-facilitated abuse, often referred to as online or digital abuse, or cyber-sexual assault, is a modern manifestation of gender-based violence that exploits digital platforms and technology to harm individuals based on their gender. This form of abuse can affect anyone, but it disproportionately targets women and individuals who do not conform to traditional gender norms. Gender-based violence (GBV) plays a profound and distressing role in steering individuals toward entry into sex work and sex related occupations. Economic vulnerabilities, coercive forces, and the aftermath of trauma influence entry into these occupations. GBV can inflict severe economic consequences, leading survivors to confront financial hardships, unemployment, and discrimination, thus creating a precarious environment where sex work emerges as a desperate means of securing basic necessities and independence. The insidious coercion and exploitation associated with GBV can also compel some individuals, especially those facing threats or manipulation, to enter sex work against their will. Tragically, human trafficking, a form of GBV, forces victims into situations of sexual exploitation, perpetuating the dire circumstances that drive entry into sex work. The desire to escape abusive environments, coupled with societal stigmatization and marginalization, may push survivors of GBV toward sex work as a perceived escape from a cycle of violence. The psychological toll of GBV, including trauma and mental health challenges, can contribute to a sense of desperation or numbness that leads individuals to view sex work as a coping mechanism. In the absence of adequate support services and societal understanding, the intersection of gender-based violence and entry into sex work highlights the urgent need for comprehensive efforts to address the root causes, provide support for survivors, and foster economic opportunities to break the cycle of vulnerability.


Sexual trauma and revictimization can have a profound impact on an individual's entry into or continuation in sex work. Sexual trauma, which includes experiences such as sexual assault, abuse, or rape, can leave lasting emotional and psychological scars. Revictimization refers to the occurrence of additional traumatic events, often of a similar nature, following the initial experience of trauma.


Sexual trauma, encompassing experiences such as sexual assault or abuse, holds profound implications for survivors and may influence the trajectory towards engagement in sex work. The aftermath of sexual trauma often leaves individuals grappling with complex emotional and psychological challenges, prompting some to seek coping mechanisms that extend to the commodification of their bodies in sex work. Revictimization, characterized by the occurrence of subsequent traumatic events, further amplifies vulnerability and may intersect with the sex work landscape. Patterns of revictimization can manifest in contexts where exploitation is prevalent, creating a self-perpetuating cycle that reinforces the involvement in sex work. The enduring emotional scars of sexual trauma, coupled with societal stigmatization, can erode self-worth, leaving survivors with limited perceived alternatives, thus rendering sex work a pragmatic choice in the pursuit of financial stability or autonomy. The reenactment of power dynamics within sex work, akin to those experienced during the initial trauma, underscores the intricate ways in which survivors navigate complex webs of exploitation. This intersection of sexual trauma, revictimization, and sex work demands nuanced academic inquiry and comprehensive interventions to dismantle structural vulnerabilities, challenge societal stigmas, and offer tailored support for survivors in their pursuit of healing and recovery.


Counseling for gender-based violence (GBV) is a crucial and specialized therapeutic intervention aimed at supporting individuals who have experienced various forms of harm based on their gender. A safe and empathetic space is necessary for survivors to explore their experiences, express emotions, and work towards healing. The counseling process often involves trauma-informed approaches, acknowledging the profound impact of GBV on mental health and well-being. Counseling professionals work collaboratively with survivors to address the psychological, emotional, and sometimes physical consequences of the violence they have endured.

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